|Alternative Medicine |
The following information is specific for alternative and complementary medicine. For additional evidence-based information on diseases, conditions, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and wellness issues, continue searching the Healthwise Knowledgebase.
Also indexed as:
What you need to know
Too many of the fatty compounds known as triglycerides can compromise your health. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful:
- Don't forget the fish
- Eat more fatty fish and take a daily fish oil supplement providing 3,000 mg of the triglyceride-lowering omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA
- Get the niacin you need
- Under your doctor's supervision, take niacin (vitamin B3) in amounts large enough to reduce triglyceride levels
- Slim down
- Normalize triglyceride levels by losing excess weight through a long-term program of exercise and healthier eating
- Diet right
- Eat less sugar and other refined carbohydrates, and limit alcohol and caffeine
- Focus on fitness
- Begin a regular exercise program to lower triglyceride levels
These recommendations are not comprehensive and are not intended to replace the advice of your doctor or pharmacist. Continue reading the full high triglycerides article for more in-depth, fully-referenced information on medicines, vitamins, herbs, and dietary and lifestyle changes that may be helpful.
About high triglycerides
Triglycerides (TGs) are a group of fatty compounds that circulate in the bloodstream and are stored in the fat tissue. Individuals who have elevated blood levels of TGs (known as hypertriglyceridemia) appear to be at increased risk of developing heart disease.
People with diabetes often have elevated TG levels. Successfully controlling diabetes will, in some cases, lead to normalization of TG levels.
Product ratings for high triglycerides
What are the symptoms?
Very high triglycerides can cause pancreatitis, an enlarged liver and spleen, and fatty deposits in the skin called xanthomas. Otherwise, high triglycerides may not cause symptoms until and unless heart disease or other diseases of blood vessels develop.
Dietary changes that may be helpful
While consuming moderate amounts of alcohol does not appear to affect TG levels, heavy drinking is believed to be an important cause of hypertriglyceridemia.1 Alcoholics with elevated TG levels should deal with the disease of alcoholism first.
Ingesting refined sugar increases TG levels, as well.2, 3 People with elevated TGs should therefore reduce their intake of sugar, sweets, and other sugar-containing foods. There is also evidence that ingesting fructose in amounts that are found in a typical Western diet can raise TG levels, although not all studies agree on that point.4 It should be noted that most studies of fructose investigated the refined form, not the fructose that occurs naturally in some fruits.
In a study of heavy caffeine users (individuals who were consuming an average of 560 mg of caffeine per day from coffee and tea), changing to decaffeinated coffee and eliminating all other caffeinated products for two weeks resulted in a statistically significant 25% reduction in TG levels.5
Diets high in fiber have reduced TG levels in several clinical trials,6 but have had no effect in other clinical trials.7 Water-soluble fibers, such as pectin found in fruit, guar gum and other gums found in beans, and beta-glucan found in oats, may be particularly helpful in lowering triglycerides.
Consumption of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet reduced TGs in one study.8 However, in another study, populations that consumed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet had higher TG levels, compared with populations that consumed lower amounts of carbohydrates.9 Suddenly switching to a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet will generally increase TGs temporarily, but making the switch gradually protects against this short-term problem.10
The blood level of TGs following a meal may be a more important indicator of coronary heart disease risk than the fasting level.11, 12 However, a low-fat diet (55% carbohydrates, 23% fats, 22% proteins) that succeeded in normalizing other blood lipids, including fasting TG levels, failed to normalize post-meal TG levels in a group of people with hypertriglyceridemia.13 These results suggest that dietary reduction of fasting TGs, even if the diet controls other blood lipids, may not be enough to provide optimal protection against coronary heart disease. Many doctors recommend a diet low in saturated fat (meaning avoidance of red meat and all dairy except nonfat dairy) to reduce TGs and the risk of heart disease.14
Some,15, 16 but not all,17 studies have found that increasing consumption of fish is associated with a lower risk of heart disease. Significant amounts of TG-lowering omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA ) can be found in the fish oil of salmon, herring, mackerel, sardines, anchovies, albacore tuna, and black cod. Many doctors recommend that people with elevated TGs increase their intake of these fatty fish.
Lifestyle changes that may be helpful
Exercise lowers TG levels.18 People who have diabetes, heart disease, or are over the age of 40, should talk with a doctor before beginning an exercise program.
Smoking has been linked to elevated TG levels.19 As always, it makes sense for smokers to quit.
Obesity increases TG levels.20 Maintaining ideal body weight helps protect against elevated TG levels. Many doctors encourage people who have elevated TGs and who are overweight to lose the extra weight.
Vitamins that may be helpful
Many double-blind trials have demonstrated that fish oils (also called fish-oil concentrates) containing EPA and DHA (mentioned above) lower TG levels.21 The amount of fish oil used in much of the research was an amount that provided 3,000 mg per day of omega-3 fatty acids. To calculate how much omega-3 fatty acid is contained in a fish-oil supplement, add together the amounts of EPA and DHA. For example, a typical 1,000-mg capsule of fish oil provides 180 mg of EPA and 120 mg of DHA (total omega-3 fatty acids equals 300 mg). Ten of these capsules would contain 3,000 mg of omega-3 fatty acids. Other sources of omega-3 fatty acids, such as flaxseed oil, do not lower TGs. While flaxseed oil has other benefits, it should not be used for the purpose of reducing TGs.
In a double-blind study of people with elevated blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, supplementation with 2 to 3 grams per day of krill oil from Antarctic krill (a zooplankton crustacean) for three months decreased levels of triglycerides.22 However, 1 to 1.5 grams per day was not effective. Krill oil was significantly more effective than either a placebo or small amounts of regular fish oil containing 900 mg per day of omega-3 fatty acids.
Cod liver oil, another source of omega-3 fatty acids, has also been found to lower TGs.23 Cod-liver oil is less expensive than the fish-oil concentrates discussed previously. However, cod-liver oil also contains relatively large amounts of vitamin A and vitamin D; too much of either can cause side effects. In contrast, fish-oil concentrates have little or none of these vitamins. Individuals wishing to use cod liver oil as a substitute for a fish-oil concentrate should consult a doctor.
Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and cod liver oil have been reported to affect blood in many other ways that might lower the risk of heart disease.24 However, these supplements sometimes increase LDL cholesterol -the bad form of cholesterol. A doctor can check to see if fish oil has this effect on an individual. Research shows that when 900 mg of garlic extract is added to fish oil, the combination still dramatically lowers TG levels but no longer increases LDL cholesterol.25 Therefore, it appears that taking garlic supplements may be a way to avoid the increase in LDL cholesterol sometimes associated with taking fish oil. People who take fish oil may also need to take vitamin E to prevent the oil from undergoing potentially damaging oxidation in the body.26 It is not known how much vitamin E is needed to prevent such oxidation. The amount required would presumably depend on the amount of fish oil used. In one clinical trial, 300 IU of vitamin E per day prevented oxidation damage in individuals taking 6 grams of fish oil per day.27
Pantethine is a byproduct of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). Several clinical trials have shown that 300 mg of pantethine taken three times per day will lower TG levels.28, 29, 30 Pantothenic acid, which is found in most B vitamins, does not have this effect.
The niacin form of vitamin B3 is used by doctors to lower cholesterol levels, but niacin also lowers TG levels.31 The amount of niacin needed to achieve worthwhile reductions in cholesterol and TG levels is several grams per day. Such quantities can cause side effects, including potential damage to the liver, and should not be taken without the supervision of a doctor. Some doctors recommend inositol hexaniacinate (a special form of vitamin B3) as an alternative to niacin. A typical amount recommended is 500 mg three times per day.32, 33 This form of vitamin B3 does not typically cause a skin flush and is said to be safer for the liver than niacin. However, the alleged safety advantage of inositol hexaniacinate needs to be confirmed by additional clinical trials. Moreover, it is not clear whether inositol hexaniacinate is as effective as niacin at lowering cholesterol and TG levels.
In a preliminary trial, supplementation with 800 mg of calcium per day for one year resulted in a statistically significant 35% reduction in the average TG level among people with elevated cholesterol and triglycerides.34 However, in another trial, calcium supplementation had no effect on TG levels.35 One of the differences between these two trials was that more people in the former trial had initially elevated TG levels.
In a double-blind trial, 30 people with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes received 200 mcg of chromium per day (as chromium picolinate) for two months and a placebo for an additional two months. The average TG level was significantly lower (by an average of 17.4%) during chromium supplementation than during the placebo period.36 Some,37, 38 but not all, trials39, 40 support these findings. It is not clear whether chromium supplementation affects TG levels in non-diabetics, but some evidence suggests that it does not.41, 42, 43, 44, 45
L-carnitine is another supplement that has lowered TGs in several clinical trials.46, 47 However, the effect of carnitine is unpredictable, and some individuals have experienced an increase in triglyceride levels after receiving this supplement.48 Some doctors recommend 1-3 grams of carnitine per day, in the form known as L-carnitine.
Several double-blind trials have evaluated the efficacy of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or inulin (a related compound) for lowering blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These trials have shown that in individuals with elevated total cholesterol or triglyceride levels, including people with type 2 diabetes, FOS or inulin (in amounts ranging from 8 to 20 grams daily) produced significant reductions in triglyceride levels; however, the effect on cholesterol levels was inconsistent.49, 50, 51, 52 In people with normal or low cholesterol or triglyceride levels, FOS or inulin produced little effect.53, 54, 55
The effect of policosanol on serum triglycerides has been inconsistent, ranging from no effect up to as much as a 19% reduction.56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 Several controlled studies have compared policosanol with cholesterol-lowering medications, such as statins, and have found policosanol similarly effective.66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72 Policosanol extracted from beeswax or other sources differs from the sugar-cane-derived preparation in the proportions of long-chain alcohols, and whether these types of policosanol are as effective as sugar-cane-derived policosanol is unknown.
A double-blind trial found that a supplement of 5 grams of creatine plus 1 gram of glucose taken four times per day for five days followed by twice a day for 51 days significantly lowered serum total triglycerides in both men and women.73 However, another double-blind trial found no change in any of these blood levels in trained athletes using creatine during a 12-week strength training program.74 Creatine supplementation in this negative trial was lower-only five grams per day was taken for the last 11 weeks of the study.
Are there any side effects or interactions?
Refer to the individual supplement for information about any side effects or interactions.
Herbs that may be helpful
Guggul, a mixture of ketonic steroids from the gum oleoresin of Commiphora mukul, is an approved treatment of hyperlipidemia in India and has been a mainstay of Ayurvedic herbal approaches to preventing atherosclerosis. Clinical trials indicate that guggul is effective in the treatment of high TGs; in one trial, serum TGs fell by 30.3%.75
However, these results have not been confirmed by large, controlled trials. The recommended daily intake of guggul is typically based on the amount of guggulsterones in the extract. The recommended amount of guggulsterones is 25 mg three times per day. Most extracts contain 5-10% guggulsterones. Guggul's effect on TGs should be monitored for three to four months, and guggul may be taken long term if successful in lowering TGs.
Reports on many clinical trials of garlic performed until 1998 suggested that triglycerides were lowered by an average of 8-27% and cholesterol by 9-12% over a one- to four-month period.76, 77, 78 Most of these trials used 600-900 mg per day of a garlic supplement standardized to alliin content and allicin potential. More recently, however, three double-blind clinical trials have found garlic to have minimal success in lowering triglycerides and cholesterol.79, 80, 81 One negative trial has been criticized for using a steam distilled garlic "oil" that has no track record for this purpose,82 while the others used the same standardized garlic products as the previous positive clinical trials. Based on these findings, the use of garlic should not be considered a primary approach to lowering high triglycerides and cholesterol.83
Odor-controlled, enteric-coated garlic tablets standardized for allicin content can be taken in the amount of 900 mg daily (providing 5,000-6,000 mcg of allicin), divided into two or three daily portions.
In a double-blind trial, people with moderately high triglycerides took a tincture of Achillea wilhelmsii, an herb used in traditional Persian medicine.84 Participants in the trial used 15-20 drops of the tincture twice daily for six months. At the end of the trial, participants experienced significant reductions in triglycerides compared to those who took placebo. No adverse effects were reported.
Fenugreek has been shown to lower total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in people with high lipid levels in preliminary trials.85 Bread made with 50 grams defatted fenugreek powder was used twice daily in the trial. Similar results have been seen at half that amount in people with diabetes and elevated blood levels of various lipids.86 A small randomized trial found similar results using 100 grams fenugreek seeds daily.87 One small clinical trial found that either 25 grams or 50 grams per day of defatted fenugreek seed powder were effective in reducing triglycerides over a 20-day period.88 Mild diarrhea and gas can accompany the first few days of fenugreek use, though it almost always fades as the person taking it adapts.
Psyllium seeds and husks have shown a modest ability to lower blood triglyceride levels in some,89, 90 but not all,91 clinical trials. Further research is needed to assess the effect of psyllium on triglyceride levels more closely, as much of the study so far has focused on lowering cholesterol levels.
Intake of three cups or less of green tea daily has been shown not to affect blood triglyceride levels.92 Intake of four or more cups per day has been correlated with lower triglyceride levels.93 Overall, the evidence is unclear on how much of an effect high levels of intake of green tea has on triglyceride levels.
Although primarily used to lower high serum cholesterol, red yeast rice extract, high in monacolins, has been found to significantly lower serum triglyceride levels.94 People in the trial took 1.2 grams (approximately 13.5 mg total monacolins) of a concentrated red yeast rice extract per day for two months. The sale of Cholestin has been banned in the United States, as a result of a lawsuit alleging patent infringement. Other red yeast rice products currently on the market differ from Cholestin in their chemical makeup. None contain the full complement of 10 monacolin compounds that are present in Cholestin, and some contain a potentially toxic fermentation product called citrinin. 95 Until further information is available, red yeast rice products other than Cholestin cannot be recommended.
Animal studies suggest the mushroom maitake may lower fat levels in the blood.96 However, this research is still preliminary and requires confirmation by controlled human trials.
Are there any side effects or interactions?
Refer to the individual herb for information about any side effects or interactions.
- Steinberg D, Pearson TA, Kuller LH. Alcohol and atherosclerosis. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:967-76.
- Reiser S. Effect of dietary sugars on metabolic risk factors associated with heart disease. Nutr Health 1985;3:203-16.
- Szanto S, Yudkin J. The effect of dietary sucrose on blood lipids serum insulin, platelet adhesiveness and body weight in human volunteers. Postgrad Med J 1969;45:602-7.
- Hollenbeck CB. Dietary fructose effects on lipoprotein metabolism and risk for coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58(5 Suppl):800S-9S.
- Naismith DJ, Akinyanju PA, Szanto S, Yudkin J. The effect in volunteers of coffee and decaffeinated coffee on blood glucose, insulin, plasma lipids and some factors involved in blood clotting. Nutr Metab 1970;12:144-51.
- Anderson JW, Gustafson NJ. High-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet. Postgrad Med 1987;82:40-55 [review].
- Glore SR, van Treeck D, Knehans AW, Guild M. Soluble fiber and serum lipids: a literature review. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:425-36.
- Cominacini L, Zocca I, Garbin U, et al. Long-term effect of a low-fat, high carbohydrate diet on plasma lipids of patients affected by familial endogenous hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:57-65.
- West C, Sullivan DR, Katan MB, et al. Boys from populations with high-carbohydrate intake have higher fasting triglyceride levels than boys from populations with high-fat intake. Am J Epidemiol 1990;131:271-82.
- Ullmann D, Connor WE, Hatcher LF, et al. Will a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet lower plasma lipids and lipoproteins without producing hypertriglyceridemia? Arterioscler Thromb 1991;11:1059-67.
- Patsch JR, Miesenbock G, Hopferwieser T, et al. Relation of triglyceride metabolism and coronary artery disease. Studies in the postprandial state. Arterioscler Thromb 1992;12:1336-45.
- Ryu JE, Howard G, Craven TE, et al. Postprandial triglyceridemia and carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged subjects. Stroke 1992;23:823-8.
- Zoppo A, Maggi FM, Catapano AL. A successful dietary treatment fails to normalize plasma triglyceride postprandial response in type IV patients. Atherosclerosis 1999;146:19-23.
- Consensus Development Panel. Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. JAMA 1984;251:1196-200.
- Burr ML, Fehily AM, Gilbert JF, et al. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet 1989;ii:757-61.
- Kromhout D, Bosschieter EB, de Lezenne Coulander C. The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1985;312:1205-9.
- Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, et al. Dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of coronary disease among men. N Engl J Med 1995;332:977-82.
- Merrill JR, Holly RG, Anderson RL, et al. Hyperlipemic response of young trained and untrained men after a high fat meal. Arteriosclerosis 1989;9:217-23.
- Cowan LD, Wilcosky T, Criqui MH, et al. Demographic, behavioral, biochemical, and dietary correlates of plasma triglycerides. Arteriosclerosis 1985;5:466-80.
- Despres J-P, Tremblay A, Leblanc C, Bouchard C. Effect of the amount of body fat on the age-associated increase in serum cholesterol. Prev Med 1988;17:423-31.
- Prichard BN, Smith CCT, Ling KLE, Betteridge DJ. Fish oils and cardiovascular disease. BMJ 1995;310:819-20 [editorial/review].
- Bunea R, El Farrah K, Deutsch L. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemia. Altern Med Rev 2004;9:420-8.
- Von Schacky C, Fischer S, Weber PC. Long-term effects of dietary marine omega-3 fatty acids upon plasma and cellular lipids, platelet function, and eicosanoid formation in humans. J Clin Invest 1985;76:1626-31.
- Leaf A, Weber PC. Cardiovascular effects of n-3 fatty acids. N Engl J Med 1988;318:549-57.
- Adler AJ, Holub BJ. Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:445-50.
- Haglund O, Luostarinen R, Wallin R, et al. The effects of fish oil on triglycerides, cholesterol, fibrinogen and malondialdehyde in humans supplemented with vitamin E. J Nutr 1991;121:165-9.
- Oostenbrug GS, Mensink RP, Hornstra G. A moderate in vivo vitamin E supplement counteracts the fish-oil-induced increase in in vitro oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:827S.
- Arsenio L, Bodria P, Magnati G, et al. Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemia. Clin Ther 1986;8:537-45.
- Avogaro P, Bon GB, Fusello M. Effect of pantethine on lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in man. Curr Ther Res 1983;33:488-93.
- Maggi GC, Donati C, Criscuoli G. Pantethine: a physiological lipomodulating agent, in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. Curr Ther Res 1982;32:380-6.
- Brown WV. Niacin for lipid disorders. Postgrad Med 1995;98:183-93 [review].
- Head KA. Inositol hexaniacinate: a safer alternative to niacin. Altern Med Rev 1996;1:176-84 [review].
- Murray M. Lipid-lowering drugs vs. inositol hexaniacinate. Am J Natural Med 1995;2(8):9-12 [review].
- Bierenbaum ML, Fleischman AI, Raichelson RI. Long term human studies on the lipid effects of oral calcium. Lipids 1972;7:202-6.
- Carlson LA, Olsson AG, Oro L, Rossner S. Effects of oral calcium upon serum cholesterol and triglycerides in patients with hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis 1971;14:391-400.
- Lee NA, Reasner CA. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449-52.
- Abraham AS, Brooks BA, Eylath U. The effects of chromium supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in patients with and without non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Metabolism 1992;41:768-71.
- Thomas VL, Gropper SS. Effect of chromium nicotinic acid supplementation on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. Biol Trace Elem Res 1996;55:297-305.
- Rabinowitz MB, Gonick HC, Levin SR, Davidson MB. Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care 1983;6:319-27.
- Uusitupa MI, Kumpulainen JT, Voutilainen E, et al. Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:404-10.
- Offenbacher EG, Pi-Sunyer FX. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1980;29:919-25.
- Offenbacher EG, Rinko CJ, Pi-Sunyer FX. The effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast on glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and plasma chromium in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:454-61.
- Roeback JR Jr, Hla KM, Chambless LE, Fletcher RH. Effects of chromium supplementation on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men taking beta-blockers. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:917-24.
- Wilson BE, Gondy A. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1995;28:179-84.
- Thomas VL, Gropper SS. Effect of chromium nicotinic acid supplementation on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. Biol Trace Elem Res 1996;55:297-305.
- Pola P, Savi L, Grilli M, et al. Carnitine in the therapy of dyslipidemic patients. Curr Ther Res 1980;27:208-16.
- Abdel-Aziz MT, Abdou MS, Soliman K, et al. Effect of carnitine on blood lipid pattern in diabetic patients. Nutr Rep Int 1984;29:1071-9.
- Anonymous. Carnitine, clue or cure? Lancet 1982;2:1027-8.
- Yamashita K, Kawai K, Itakura M. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharides on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic subjects. Nutr Res 1984;4:961-6.
- Jackson KG, Taylor GRJ, Clohessy AM, Williams CM. The effect of the daily intake of inulin on fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentrations in middle-aged men and women. Br J Nutr 1999;82:23-30.
- Roberfroid M. Dietary fibre, inulin and oligofructose. A review comparing their physiological effects. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1993;33:103-48 [review].
- Davidson MH, Synecki C, Maki KC, Drennen KB. Effects of dietary inulin in serum lipids in men and women with hypercholesterolaemia. Nutr Res 1998;3:503-17.
- Luo J, Rizkalla SW, Alamowitch C, et al. Chronic consumption of short-chain fructooligosaccharides by health subjects decreased basal hepatic glucose production but had no effect on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:939-45.
- Pedersen A, Sandstrom B, van Amelsvoort JMM. The effect of ingestion of inulin on blood lipids and gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy females. 1997;78:215-22.
- van Dokkum W, Wezendonk B, Srikumar TS, van den Heuvel EG. Effect of nondigestible oligosaccharides on large-bowel functions, blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in young healthy male subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:1-7.
- Gouni-Berthold I, Berthold HK. Policosanol: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic significance of a new lipid-lowering agent. Am Heart J 2002;143:356-65 [review].
- Mirkin A, Mas R, Martinto M, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 2001;21:31-41.
- Castano G, Mas R, Fernandez L et al. Effects of policosanol 20 versus 40 mg/day in the treatment of patients with type II hypercholesterolemia: A 6-month double-blind study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 2001;21:43-57.
- Mas R, Castano G, Illnait J, et al. Effects of policosanol in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and additional coronary risk factors. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;65:439-47.
- Torres O, Agramonte AJ, Illnait J, et al. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia in NIDDM with policosanol. Diabetes Care 1995;18:393-7.
- Canetti M, Moreira M, Mas R, et al. A two-year study on the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in patients with type II hyperlipoproteinaemia. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1995;15:159-65.
- Aneiros E, Calderson B, Más R, et al. Effect of successive dose increases of policosanol on the lipid profile and tolerability of treatment. Curr Ther Res 1993;54:304-12.
- Pons P, Rodríquez M, Más R, et al. One-year efficacy and safety of policosanol in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res 1994;55:1084-92.
- Castano G, Canetti M, Moreira M, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in elderly patients with type II hypercholesterolemia: a 12-month study. Curr Ther Res 1995;56:819-23.
- Castano G, Tula L, Canetti M, et al. Effects of policosanol in hypertensive patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:691-5.
- Fernandez JC, Mas R, Castano G, et al. Comparison of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of policosanol versus fluvastatin in elderly hypercholesterolaemic women. Clin Drug Invest 2001;21:103-13.
- Castano G, Mas R, Fernandez JC, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol compared with lovastatin in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and concomitant coronary risk factors. Curr Ther Res 2000;61:137-46.
- Alcocer L, Fernandez L, Campos E, Mas Ferreiro R. A comparative study of policosanol Versus acipimox in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia.Int J Tissue React 1999;21:85-92.
- Crespo N, Illnait J, Mas R, et al. Comparative study of the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol and lovastatin in patients with hypercholesterolemia and noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1999;19:117-27.
- Castano G, Mas R, Arruzazabala ML, et al. Effects of policosanol and pravastatin on lipid profile, platelet aggregation and endothelemia in older hypercholesterolemic patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1999;19:105-16.
- Ortensi G, Gladstein J, Valli H, et al. A comparative study of policosanol versus simvastatin in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res 1997;58:390-401.
- Benitez M, Romero C, Mas R, et al. A comparative study of policosanol versus pravastatin in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res 1997;58:859-67.
- Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci 1996;91:113-8.
- Volek JS, Duncan ND, Mazzetti SA, et al. No effect of heavy resistance training and creatine supplementation on blood lipids. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000;10:144-56.
- Agarwal RC, Singh SP, Saran RK, et al. Clinical trial of gugulipid new hypolipidemic agent of plant origin in primary hyperlipidemia. Indian J Med Res 1986;84:626-34.
- Warshafsky S, Kamer R, Sivak S. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol: A meta-analysis. Ann Int Med 1993;119(7)599-605.
- Silagy C, Neil A. Garlic as a lipid-lowering agent-a meta-analysis. J R Coll Phys London 1994;28(1):39-45.
- Neil HAW, Silagy CA, Lancaster T, et al. Garlic powder in the treatment of moderate hyperlipidaemia: A controlled trial and a meta-analysis. J R Coll Phys 1996;30:329-34.
- McCrindle BW, Helden E, Conner WT. Garlic extract therapy in children with hypercholesterolemia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:1089-94.
- Isaacsohn JL, Moser M, Stein EA, et al. Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1189-94.
- Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism. JAMA 1998;279:1900-2.
- Lawson L. Garlic oil for hypercholesterolemia-negative results. Quart Rev Natural Med Fall 1998;185-6.
- Garlic powder for hyperlipidemia-analysis of recent negative results. Quart Rev Natural Med Fall 1998;187-9.
- Asgary S, Naderi GH, Sarrafzadegan N, et al. Antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effects of Achillea wilhelmsii. Drugs Exp Clin Res 2000;26:89-93.
- Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Dayasagar Rao V. Hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds. A clinical study. Phyother Res 1991;5:145-7.
- Sharma RD, Sarkar DK, Hazra B, et al. Hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds: A chronic study in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytother Res 1996;10:332-4.
- Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Rao NS. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990;44:301-6.
- Prasanna M. Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek: A clinical study. Indian J Pharmacol 2000;32:34-6.
- Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Vidgen E, et al. Effect of psyllium in hypercholesterolemia at two monounsaturated fatty acid intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:1524-33.
- Ganji V, Kies CV. Pysllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: Hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1996;47:103-10.
- Davidson MH, Maki KC, Kong JC, et al. Long-term effects of consuming foods containing psyllium seed husk on serum lipids in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:367-76.
- Tsubono Y, Tsugane S. Green tea intake in relation to serum lipid levels in middle-aged Japanese men and women. Ann Epidemiol 1997;7:280-4.
- Imai K, Nakachi K. Cross sectional study of effects of drinking green tea on cardiovascular and liver diseases. BMJ 1995;310:693-6.
- Wang J, Lu Z, Chi J, et al. Multicenter clinical trial of the serum lipid-lowering effects of a Monascus purpureus (red yeast) rice preparation from traditional Chinese medicine. Curr Ther Res 1997;58:964-77.
- Heber D, Lembertas A, Lu QY, et al. An analysis of nine proprietary Chinese red yeast rice dietary supplements: implications of variability in chemical profile and contents. J Altern Complement Med 2001;7:133-9.
- Kubo K, Nanba H. Anti-hyperliposis effect of maitake fruit body (Grifola frondosa). I. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:781-5.
Last Review: 01-21-2009
Copyright © 2010 Healthnotes, Inc. All rights reserved.
Learn more about Healthnotes, the company.
Learn more about the authors of Healthnotes.
The information presented in Healthnotes is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires August 2010.